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Canada

Autor: Petr Vostrý

Canada is situated in northern part of Nort America. It occupies the whole of the northern part of North America (except Alaska) and many islands - such as Baffin Island, New Foundland and so on. It is second largest country in the world. It borders with USA on the south and east (on Alaska). Canada si member of British commonwealth. It's federation of ten provinces- Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchevan, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Islands, Quebec, New Foundladn, New Scotia and New Brunswick. The capital city of Canada is Ottawa.The representativ of state is prime minister - he come's from strongest political party.
So, I will speak about history of Canada. Canada was reached by English expedition led by John Calbot in 1497 and french expedition in 1537. Boot countries make colonies there. In 1791 was Canada divided to English speaking Upper Canada and french speaking Lower Canada. These parts was united in 1841. Between years 1870 and 1873 were linked to Canada provincies Manitoba, British Columbia and Prince Edward Islands. Economy grew up, because of discoverign of metals, gold and lumbering forest. New Foundland was joined in 1949.
Canada's population is about 25 mil. inhabitants, which means that the density is one of the lowest. 89% of the land has no permanent population. More than 40% are of British origin, 30% of French origin and over 20% of continental European origin. Ineteresting is the origin of name of state - Indians used word "kanata" which means village.
Canada has mainly coal, metal, oil, machine building and chemical industries which are highly developed. The main mining province is Alberta. Hamilton and Sydney are main centres of iron and steels industries. Motor-car industry has its biggest works in Chatham and Oshawa, ships are built on the banks of Great Lakes. Almost half the land is covered by forests, only 7% is suitable for farming. Canada exports wheat, live-stock, oats or vegetables. Valid currency is Canadian dollar - the exchange rate is 75 US cents to 1 Canadian dollar.
Canada is independent federal parliamentary systém with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. She is represented in Canada by the Governor-General. The country's supreme body is the Federal Parliament consisting of two Houses. The House of Commons is elected every 5 years. The Senate consists of senators appointed by Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The leading figure in political life is the Prime Ministen. How I said, Canada is divided into 10 provincies and 2 territories. The biggest province is Quebec with the capital Quebec city. The population is mainly French speaking and the premier of Quebec wants more powers for this province. The biggest city is Toronto. Other large cities are Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton or Hamilton. Canada is member of many international organizations such as GATT, UNESCO or NATO.
Canada has its own national flag since 1964.

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