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English language

Súbor pridal: Dana

Two thousand years ago the British Isles were inhabited bz speakers of Celtic language. These languages   survive only in some parts of England (Wales Scotland). The name of Britain itself and names of rivers (Davon) and places (Dover) are also from the Caltic language. The English was also influenced by the Latin, which was spoken by Romans. The Latin word castra (military camp) survives in a number of English names of places ending in -chester or –caster (Leicester). But this language wasn`t adopt by ordinary people.

So we can say that the English language is of Germanic origin. It was used by Anglo-Saxons, who arrived to England from northern Germany , Holland and Denmark. After Angles, who occupied the large part of the country, was the country called England (the land of Andgles).

In 11.century England was conquered by the French- speaking Normans and Franch became the oficial language of England. The Latin was used in church but English by ordinary people.

Finally today English vocabulary is Germanic – from Saxons and Romance – from French and Latin.

 

Old English: shirt, love, hate

French: boil, village, pork

Latin: major, item

 

Old English had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, but over years words have been simplified and have very few inflections now.  Some of the simplicity of form> no conjugation > no genter> adjective have got only form> importence of prepositions. Also the flexibility of vocabulary is bigAdjective can be udes as verb, many nouns and verbs have the same for….. Over 80% of vocabulary come rfrom other languages. E.g tea from Chinese, karate from Japanese, piano and violin from Italian, robot from Czech.

 

Approximately 350 million people speak English. It is an official language in 44 countries but in many others it is the language of business, technology, sports and music. The speakers fall into tree groups. Those who have learned it as their native language, those who have learned it as a second language – Commonwealth countries or former Br. Kolonies, and those who use it for a practical purpose – and it`t foreign language for them.

We can say that English is everywhere.

There are many varieties of English and the biggest differnces are between American and British English.

 

British                                                                                              American

 

Spelling

Travelled                                                                                              traveled

Colour                                                                                                 color

Metre                                                                                                  meter

 

Vocabulary

Lift                                                                                                       elevator

Petrol                                                                                                   gas

Shop                                                                                                    store

 

Pronunciation

Tomato [toma:tou]                                                                                [tomeitou]

Doctor [doktr]                                                                                    [daktr]

Letter [letr]                                                                                          [leder]

 

Grammar

I`ve just seen her                                                                               I just saw her (no present perfect)

I haven`t got much time                                                                    I don`t have much time (have no heve got)

Stay at home                                                                                        stay home

Monday to Friday                                                                          Monday through Friday

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