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Ernest Hemingway

Was born on July 21 in 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. It is a subberb of Chicago. His father, a doctor was devoted to hunting and fishing. His mother liked music and was devotly religious. As a boy Ernest liked box and he played high-school football. He composed light verses and short stories for the school paper.

At the age of 17 he was eager to go to war, but was repeatedly rejicted (odmietnutý) by the army. He lied about his age to get a job as a reporter on the Cansas City Star. Finally he got to the army as a honorary lientenant of the American Red Cross. He was sent to the Italy to serve as an ambulance driver. But only a month after his arrival, he was seriously wounded in both legs. A dozen operation was done on his knee. In January 1919 he returned to America. First he worked for the Toronto Star in Canada and later in Chicago.

Paris

In 1921 he married Hadley Richardson. He got a job as a correspondent for the Toronto Star in Paris. The Hemingways lived happily there, they became friends with Gertrude Stein and her friends. She adviced Hemingway to work on his style.He was gifted with excelent perception (prijímanie niečoho) and ability to reproduce things in words. Through reporting he learned the advantage of reduction (novinárska skratka). Acording to him 'the writer's job is to tell the truth - and what is true is also beautiful.

They liked to spend their winter holidays skiing in Austrian Tirol. In the evenings he read and learned from his favourite authors (Čechov, Tolstoj, Flaubert, Dostojevskij, James Joyce, Standal). He trained himself to observe accurately and to express clearly what he saw and heard. Soon he started to publish his stories and poems. It was not easy for him to earn a living for his family. He spent many a day writting at the table in a cheap caffee without having dinner. His first mostly authobiographical stories were published under the title In Our Time. He often went to Spain for bull fights. In June 1925 he started his first nove in Valencia The Sun Also Rises.

New life with a new wife.

In 1927he published his second collection of stories Men Without Women. Before it appeared, he had been divorced by Hadley and had married a rich, american girl Pauline Pfeifer. He started a new life - summers on a ranch in Wyoming, winters on Florida. There he wrote the first draft of his second novel A Farewell to Arms. The novel was a tragic book, which brought a reputation as a serious writer. His next novel was on theme bull fights Death in the Afternoon. Not only bull-fighting and fishing, but especially hunting ranked among his hobbies.

Africa

He spent the winter of 1934-35 in East Africa on safari. In 1935 he published Green Hills of Africa. A true account of a hunting expedition to Tanganjika. Then two stories followed The Shows of Kilimangaro and A Short Happy Life of Fancis Macombler.

Spain

Spain had always been his love. But the Spanish Civil War was a tragedy. He hated fascizm (faąizmus), he knew, that a writer who would not lie, could not live and work under fascizm. Through the years of war (1936-39) he was either in Spain or was working for the republic outside Spain. He reported the war for an American paper. He also actively joined the fight.

His novel For Whom the Bells Tolls appeared in 1940. It was based on everything he had learned about Spain before and during the war. "The job of the artist is not to judge, but to understand.", says Hemingway.

In 1940 he was divorced for the second time and he married the novelist Martha Gellhorn, with whom he wrote reports from China. After their return they found a farm near Havana in Cuba. London - R.A.F. In 1944 he flew to London as a war-correspondent. He went on several missions for Royal Air Force. During this mission he met his fourth wife Mary Welsh, whom he married after being divorced. He was also the correspondent of some newspaper from Minnesota. Back in Cuba Back in Cuba he wrote another novel Across the River And Into the Trees, but it disappointed most readers. Coast of the Golf Stream and an old story about a fisherman inspired the famous story The Old Man And the Sea - published in 1952. He was given the Pulitzer Prize (the world prize for literature), and two years later (1954) the Nobel Prize for it.

The Old Man And the Sea, it's a masterpiece showing his skill to bring together nature and art, poetry of things and truth. The hero loses the battle he has won. The winner takes nothing, but the sense of having fought in the fight to the limits of his strength, of having shown what a man can do if necessary. Santiago is very type of Hemingway's heroes. Man can be rejected, but never destroyed. During a safari with Mary Welsh he experienced two plain crashes and that's why in December 1954 he wasn't able to go to Stockholm to be awarded the Nobel Prize. The following years were full of plans and activities, he made a number of trips to Spain, he served as an adviser in preparing the film-version of the "Old Man And the Sea". In 1960 he completed The Dangerous Summer an account of the carrier of the famous matador Ordoňez. Before his last trip to Spain he gave up his farm in Cuba (it is his museum now). His health was bad, he was seriously ill. On June 1961 he blew most of his head off with a shotgun. We could quote one of his heroes in his story The Indian Camp: "He couldn't stand things". His bravery honesty and literary qualities remain unique.

Zdroj súboru a poďakovanie pre: http://kvas.cdtip.sk/maturita.htm

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