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FOOD AND MEALS

Our country:
In our country daily meals usually start with breakfast, which consists of something to drink - tea (with lemon) or cocoa, warm milk, black coffee, - and something to eat, e.g. one or two slices or bread and butter and cheese or eggs, ham salami, jam etc. Instead of bread we can eat rolls or buns or we can have something sweet - cakes (Christmas cake), doughnuts or gingerbread. Quite a lot of people eat cereal for their breakfast - either cornflakes or muesli. Breakfast usually takes place between six and seven o'clock. Around noon we have our lunch which is warm and consists or some soup, a main dish, something to drink and salad or dessert. Most of people go to a school, office or factory canteen but some prefer going to a restaurant or having a fast lunch in a buffet or a snackbar or buying something at street stall. Soups can be vegetable soups potato, tomato, pea, bean, carrot, parsley, celery) or meat or mushrooms. The main dish can be sweet - strawberry or plum dumplings, pancakes with jam and cream, baked yeast dumplings, doughnuts… Or we can have some neat or fish or poultry (chicken, hen, duck, turkey, goose…) with some vegetables, potatoes, chips, rice, Czech dumplings and bread. We distinguish this type of meat: beef (cow), pork (pig), veal (calf), mutton (sheep), lamb (baby sheep) and we can prepare it in various ways - roast, grill, boil, bake, or stew. Lots of people in our country eat rabbits. The main fish cooked in our country is carp and trout. After main dish we may drink tea, lemonade, cider, juice, Coke, mineral water, syrup and water, while the adults like beer and black coffee after their dinner. An evening meal is either warm or cold. Cold and quick supper may consist of some pâté on bread or rolls, kippers or some spread. We can cook a ready made dish from a tin or have soup or potato pancakes. Typical Czech meals include: Tripe soup; potato soup; kulajda soup, roasted goose and sauerkraut and Czech dumplings. Traditional Czech cuisine is however a bit unhealthy and people can get fat.
Britain:
Traditional British breakfast consists of a glass of fruit juice and cornflakes with sugar and milk. Of course the drink tea in the morning or coffee. Sunday are reserved for their big cooked breakfast (sometimes called "brunch" - breakfast and lunch together) consisting of boiled or scrambled eggs or fried bacon and eggs with perhaps sausage or tomato or fried bread. Most people like a crisp piece of toast with butter and marmalade or honey. The traditional British cosine is of overcooked vegetables, tasteless meat and a lot of grease but British eating habits have changed over last thirty years. Many families now prefer to eat out at restaurants or cafés or to buy take-away Chinese or Indian meals to eat at home. Between twelve and one o'clock is usually lunchtime. People may eat in the office or factory canteen or take a sandwich to wok. The typical British break is five o'clock tea. It is usually fairly strong and eaten together with some cakes or biscuits. How to make a real English "cuppa"? Boil water in a kettle; warm a teapot; put tea in the teapot - one teaspoonful of tea for each person plus the traditional "one for the pot"; pour the water over the tea leaves and leave it for ten minutes; put a little milk in the cup and pour the tea over it through a tea strainer; sugar is added individually according to taste. About six o'clock most families have their evening meal or dinner. It may be cooked or cold, depending on the time of year. The cooked food is normally made in microwave oven to spare the time. There is a great choice of read-made frozen food in British shops and they are not very expensive. The English are fond or cakes and pies and ice cream, they have one of this thing after every dinner or lunch or tea. They are a nation with a very "sweet tooth". But nowadays life is very fast and in Britain especially. That's why fast food is a typical feature of Britain and of course also of American lifestyle. You can eat in restaurant but there are food stalls and places where you can buy also various types of food to eat as you walk along the streets or take it away and eat at home. The Americans call fast food restaurants "cheapies". These place - McDonalds, Burger King, Wendy's usually offer beverages as Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, tea, coffee, milkshakes… and eat as roast chicken and chips, hamburgers, sandwiches, pizza, salads or desserts. Another typical feature of British and American lifestyle is popcorn. You can buy it walking down the streets. Popcorn is made by frying grains of corn in very hot oil in a sealed pan. Each grain explodes or "pops" to a form of a soft ball.
Vocabulary:
Fruit and vegetable: pineapple, gooseberry, banana, bilberry (blueberry - US), peach, cranberry, lemon, date, fig, grapefruit, pear, apple, strawberry, rowanberry, coconut, raspberry, tangerine (mandarin), almond, mango, watermelon, apricot, blackberry orange, plum, cherry, grapes, cherry, sweet cherry, nut, peanut, hazelnut, walnut, cashew-nut, brazil nut, chestnut, artichoke, kohlrabi, cleric, celery, onion, beetroot, garlic, lentils, beans, lettuce, mushrooms, peas green peas, asparagus, savoy, cabbage, dill, horse radish, pop corn, cauliflower, aubergine (egg-plant), carrot, cucumber, pickle (gherkin), olives pepper (green, red), paprika, chives, parsley, leek, tomato, radish, spinach, squash, pumpkin, sauerkraut, stewed cabbage, corn (barley, oats, wheat, millet,), lien, lot kinds of seeds, elderberry, broccoli, soya, raisin, currant, sprout, chicory, turnip, rhubarb, core, stalk…
Spices: mustard, marjoram, vinegar, pepper, sprinkle with pepper, cinnamon, spicy (hot) food, baking powder, yeast, Worcester sauce, soya sauce, allspice, caraway, curry powder, paprika, chilli powder, cloves, bay, basil, nutmeg, sage, rosemary and a clove of garlic, thyme, cumin, ketchup, ginger, semolina…
Dishes and food: dressing, fat, margarine, oil, bacon, cake, fruit pie, toffee, tart, tripe soup, cream of mushroom, chicken bouillon¸ fish soup, steak, seafood, cereals, giblets, trimmings, Vienna steak (Wiener schnitzel), goulash, oysters, liver, venison, custard, fillet of plaice, jelly, rice, spaghetti, pasta, noodles, roast potatoes, clear soup, thick soup, chocolate cake, gingerbread, sundae, trifle, porridge, vanilla ice scrambled eggs, grilled chicken, bread and butter, soft boiled eggs, sponge cake, cheese cake, pistachio ice cream, plain water, rum, soft drink, dry wines, black coffee, strong tea, aperitif, champagne, scotch and soda, cognac, vodka, bottled and draught beer, instant coffee, buttermilk, Turkish coffee, jelly and cream, pizza, risotto, fried carp and potato salad, vegetable soup, salami, sausages, prawns, shrimp, rabbit, doughnuts, kipper, pâté, frankfurter, ham, bacon, roast mat loaf, veal cutlet, sirloin with cream sauce, mackerel, gammon rolls, apple strudel, macaroni, smoked salmon, vitamin, mineral, balanced diet, fibre intake, protein deficiency, dairy products, carbohydrates, heavy food, fat X fatty food, chips, poached eggs, pancakes, omelette, batter, yeast dough, whipped cream…
Meat: pork, beef, veal, mutton, lamb, salami. Leg of pork, roast loin of pork and cabbage, gammon of bacon, white pudding, black pudding, liver sausage, slice of bacon, filler of fish, seafood, carp, trout, pike, crayfish, mackerel, sardines, kipper, salmon, shrimp, sharp, whale, venison, hare, rabbit, pheasant, partridge, turkey, chicken, stuffed chicken, poultry, vegetarian dish…
Meals: breakfast, brunch, elevenses, lunch, afternoon tea, high tea, dinner…
Courses: starter, appetiser, d'oeuvre, fish course, main course, dessert, first course, afters, sweet, coffee
Tools: cup, saucer, bowl, plate, glass, knife, fork, spoon, teaspoon, bottle and tin opener, garlic press, lemon squeezer, kitchen scales, corkscrew, whisk, wooden spoon, soup ladle, lid, pressure, cooker, saucepan, frying pan, casserole, pot, teapot, dish, baking tin, kettle, gas (electric) stove, oven, microwave oven, coffee-maker, (hand-held) electric mixer, wash up, wash dishes, grater, sieve, blender, rolling pin, strainer, mincer…
Ways of preparing: put, add, wash, use, make, cover, pour, cut, peel, slice (cheese, meet), chop (vegetable, wood), fry, roast, stew, heat, stir, mix, knead, rise, work with dough, roll out with a rolling pin, boil, simmer, melt, dissolve, sprinkle, garnish, grate, strain, mince, season, warm up whip, whip, mash, grease, grill, smoke, poach, rinse, shell, steam, bake, core, grind, pour, marinade…
Useful collocations: a pint of beer, milk; a bag of potatoes; a packet of cigarettes; a pound of chocolate, apples; a roll of toilet paper; a bottle of whisky, wine, milk, Coca-Cola; a carton of cigarettes; a cup of tea, milk; a sack of flour, apples; a box of tissues, margarine; a measure of whisky; a slice of bread, ham, apple pie, meat; a joint of meat; a tube of toothpaste; a bar of chocolate; a pair of tights; a tub of jam, yoghurt, margarine; a tin of sardines; a portion of potatoes; a loaf of bread; a jar of jam; a can of beer, Coca-Cola

In a restaurant: enter the restaurant, leave coat in cloakroom (USA), take the menu from waiter, order meals and drinks (hot or cold starter, soup, pre-prepared or ready-made meals, side dishes, main course, dessert, drink), ask for bill, pay (in cash, by a credit card, by cheque) and leave a tip

Offers and requests: What would you like to drink? Will you pass me the salt, please? Another piece of cake? Shall I make a cup of coffee? Another slice of bread? Help yourself to some more cake. One lump, or two? Cocktail? Or whisky? Some more gravy? Would you care for some cheese? What would you like have? How do you like it? I would like to have some more cake?
Responds: What does this fruit taste like? It is tasty (very nice, too hot, too thick, much too spicy, rather cold, overcooked, rather bitter, sour, just fine, right, slightly off, much too sweet, too rich, tender, tough, too fat, slightly burnt, well done, underdone). It tasters nice (like dishwash). It is absolutely tasteless. There is not enough salt in it. I will. That would be lovely. No, thank you. Yes, please. I think I have had enough. I would rather have beer. Here you are. Yes, please, it is delicious. Two please. I would like some mineral water.

My favourite meal; Recipe (preparing a meal); Christmas meal (see 25); Typical Czech and Britain meal

Zdroj referátu a ďalšie referáty na:
http://ivc.hypermart.net/maturith.htm

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